The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network that connects any object to the Internet for information exchange and communication to realize intelligent identification, location, tracking, monitoring and management. In short, the Internet of Things is the Internet of things. Intelligent sensor as three hierarchy iot perception layer, one of the important part of the physical quantities in the real world, such as chemical content, biomass into available for digital signal processing, is the basis and premise to realize the Internet of things, and MEMS (microelectromechanical) technology as support, in the development of the Internet of things play a vital role.
As the mobile Internet market becomes saturated, the Internet of Things (IoT) is gradually becoming a new point of global economic growth and technological development. According to a report released by IDC, the global Internet of Things market value will increase to $1.7 trillion by 2020. About 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet of Things in 2020, 2.5 times more than today, according to IoT. The basic requirement of the Internet of Things is the connection of things. Every object that needs to be identified and managed needs to be installed with corresponding sensors. Therefore, the upgrading of sensors becomes the key to the rapid development of the Internet of Things. With the progress of Internet of Things technology, sensors are not only required to have basic information collection and processing functions, but also become highly intelligent to measure their performance.
Intelligent sensor is a sensor with information processing function. Intelligent sensor with microprocessor, has the ability of collecting, processing and exchanging information, is the combination of sensor integration and microprocessor. Generally, the sensory system of intelligent robot is composed of multiple sensors. The collected information needs to be processed by computer, and the information can be dispersed by using sensors, thus reducing the cost. Compared with general sensors, intelligent sensors have the following three advantages: high precision information acquisition through software technology, and low cost; Have certain programming automation ability; Diversified functions.
(1) With self-zero, self-calibration, self-calibration function;
(2) With automatic compensation function;
(3) Can automatically collect data and preprocess the data;
(4) Automatic inspection, self-selection range, self-finding fault;
(5) With data storage, memory and information processing functions;
(6) With two-way communication, standardized digital output or symbol output function;
(7) With judgment, decision processing function.
The concept of intelligent sensor is introduced from abroad, usually defined as “with microprocessor, with information processing function of the sensor”. According to the “Sensitive Components and Sensor Terminology” national standard, the definition of “sensor” here is: can feel the specified measurement and according to a certain law into usable output signal device or device. It usually consists of sensitive components and transformation components.
In the 21st century, the development of MEMS technology, low energy analog and digital circuit technology, low energy radio frequency (RF) technology and sensor technology makes it possible to develop microsensors with small volume, low cost and low power consumption. The micro sensor is equipped with commonly: one for the perception of external environmental factors sensitive components (such as pressure, temperature, humidity, light, sound, magnetism, etc.), a calculation module of gathering information for handling sensitive components, one for communication transceiver module, a micro sensor various operations provide energy power supply module. We call it the “fourth generation intelligent sensor” or “intelligent networked sensor“.